Lab publication on parks and crime

Although neighborhood studies often focus on the presence of some particular entity and its consequences for a variety of local processes, a frequent limitation is the failure to account more broadly for the local context. This paper therefore examines the role of parks for community crime, but contributes to the literature by testing whether the context of land use and demographics nearby parks moderate the parks and crime relationship. A key feature of our approach is that we also test how these characteristics explain crime in the park, nearby the park, and in other neighborhoods in the city with data from nine cities across the United States (N= 109,808 blocks). We use multilevel Poisson and negative binomial regressions to test our ideas for six types of street crime. Our findings show that nearby land uses and socio-demographic characteristics are a key driver of crime being located within the park or nearby the park. Our results also show a clear distance decay pattern for the impact of various land uses and socio-demographics nearby parks. The results emphasize a need for research to consider the broader socio-spatial context in which crime generators/inhibitors are embedded.

You can access the article by Dr. Adam Boessen and Dr. John R. Hipp in Social Science Research entitled, “Drugs, Crime, Space, and Time: A Spatiotemporal Examination of Drug Activity and Crime Rates”.

Get it here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X18301303

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Lab publication on Drug Activity and Crime Rates

To take stock of the neighborhood effects of drug activity, we combined theoretical insights from the drugs and crime and communities and place literatures in examining the longitudinal relationship between drug activity and crime rates at more spatially and temporally precise levels of granularity, with blocks as the spatial units and months as the temporal units. We found that drug activity on a block one month “pushes” assaultive violence into surrounding blocks the next month. Integrating perspectives form social disorganization theory with Zimring and Hawkins’ (1997) contingency causation theory, we also found that the economic resources and residential stability of the “the larger social environment”—that is, the surrounding quarter-mile egohood area—moderate drug activity’s block-level relationship to crime. These results suggest that drug activity increases assaultive violence and serious acquisitive crime rates on structurally advantaged blocks, producing a significant ecological niche redefinition for such blocks relative to others in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

You can access the article by Christopher Contreras and Dr. John R. Hipp online first in Justice Quarterly entitled, “Drugs, Crime, Space, and Time: A Spatiotemporal Examination of Drug Activity and Crime Rates”.

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07418825.2018.1515318

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Lab publication on Latent Classes of Neighborhood Change, and Consequences for Crime in Southern California Neighborhoods

This study explored the dynamic nature of neighborhoods using a relatively novel approach and data source. By using a nonparametric holistic approach of neighborhood change based on latent class analysis (LCA), we have explored how changes in the socio-demographic characteristics of residents, as well as home improvement and refinance activity by residents, are related to changes in neighborhood crime over a decade. Utilizing annual home mortgage loan data in the city of Los Angeles from the years 2000–2010, we 1) conducted principle components factor analyses using measures of residential in-migration and home investment activities; 2) estimated LCA models to identify classes of neighborhoods that shared common patterns of change over the decade; 3) described these 11 classes; 4) estimated change-score regression models to assess the relationship of these classes with changing crime rates. The analyses detected six broad types of neighborhood change: 1) stability; 2) urban investors; 3) higher-income home buyers; 4) in-mover oscillating; 5) oscillating refinance; 6) mixed-trait. The study describes the characteristics of each of these classes, and how they are related to changes in crime rates over the decade.

You can access the article by Nicholas Branic and Dr. John R. Hipp online first in Social Science Research entitled, “Growing Pains or Appreciable Gains? Latent Classes of Neighborhood Change, and Consequences for Crime in Southern California Neighborhoods”.

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X16307931

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Lab publication studying relationship between housing age or housing types and crime

This study introduces filtering theory from housing economics to criminology and measures the age of housing as a proxy for deterioration and physical disorder. Using data for Los Angeles County in 2009 to 2011, negative binomial regression models are estimated and find that street segments with older housing have higher levels of all six crime types tested. Street segments with more housing age diversity have higher levels of all crime types, whereas housing age diversity in the surrounding ½-mile area is associated with lower levels of crime. Street segments with detached single-family units generally had less crime compared with other types of housing. Street segments with large apartment complexes (five or more units) generally have more crime than those with small apartment complexes and duplexes.

You can access the freely available article by Dr. John R. Hipp, Dr. Young-an Kim, & Dr. Kevin Kane online first in Crime & Delinquency entitled, “The effect of the physical environment on crime rates: Capturing housing age and housing type at varying spatial scales”.

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X16307931

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Lab publication studying neighborhood social distance and disagreement in assessing collective efficacy

Whereas existing research typically treats the variability in residents’ reports of collective efficacy and neighboring as measurement error, we consider such variability as of substantive interest in itself. This variability may indicate disagreement among residents with implications for the neighborhood collectivity. We propose using a general measure of social distance based on several social dimensions (rather than measures based on a single dimension such as racial/ethnic heterogeneity or income inequality) to help understand this variability in assessments.  We use data from Wave I (2001) of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhoods Study (N = 3,570) to aggregate respondents into egohoods of two different sizes: ¼ mile and ½ mile radii. Consistent with our expectations, neighborhoods with higher levels of general social distance have higher variability in the reports of neighboring and the two components of collective efficacy – cohesion and informal social control.

You can access the freely available article by Dr. John R. Hipp, Seth A. Williams, & Dr. Adam Boessen in Socius entitled, “Disagreement in Assessing Collective Efficacy: The Role of Social Distance”. The article examines variability in perceptions of collective efficacy among residents in neighborhoods in Los Angeles.

Get it here:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X16307931

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